BASIC KNEE JOINT ANATOMY

Our body is made up of skeletons and the most vital thing when compared to other structures like tissue structure, muscular structure and many more. Let’s discuss more the basic knee joint anatomy which is considered the main part of the anatomy of our bone structure of the body. The knee joint is the largest synovial joint of the body which makes it the most vital one among all other bone structure found in our body. The whole weight of your body is carried by the knee joint and any problem in the joint will paralyze you and the whole-body movement can be affected.

Our bone structure is comprised of many bone structures where the bone structure is the main composition of the skeletal structure of the human anatomy. Let’s begin from the joining part of the part, above is the thigh bone and the bone present below the joint is the shin bone and the kneecap bone is the protective cover that is joining both the thigh bone and the shin bone. There are various ligaments that are responsible for keeping these three parts of the knee bone structure in place along with the muscle and the joint capsules that is present around the joint and are tough and flexible like material which protects the joint.

Talking in medical terms, the thigh bone is called the femur bone, shin bone is called the tibia and the kneecap is called as the patella. The femur bone is found above the joint and the movement is restricted to sideways and behind the joint and is connected with two semi-circular structure called as the condyles. The tibia bone also corresponds to the femur with two such condyles. When it comes to the patella there are two types of condyles namely lateral condyles which is linked with the outer layer of the patella and medial condyle which is linked with the inner part of the patella.

Just as any mechanical part needs lubricant, the knee joint also needs a kind of lubricant that is found naturally in our body which is responsible for the smooth movement of the bones avoiding friction. This natural lubricant is called as the cartilage, it not only helps in easing the movement of the bones but also acts as a shock absorber, when a huge pressure in implied on the bone, cartilage is the one that spreads the pressure evenly.

There are two semi-circular disk presents in the joint that allows the free flow movement of the shin and the thigh bone and is called as the menisci. The knee is referred to as hinge joint which means it allows some restricted movements such as extending the bone to the front and back and some reflex rotational movements but it does not give full access to movements where ever we want to move our joint.

The whole surface of the knee joint is covered with a thin flimsy sheet-like material called as the synovium which secretes a liquid that works as a lubricant to the cartilage and thus protecting the cartilage from any damage. The other main function of the synovium is that it gives nourishment to the parts of the bone where the blood flow is at its minimum.

The bone that you can feel just by touching from the outer surface has got a ligament underneath it protecting it from shock and external swelling that might happen. There are four types of ligaments that are surrounding the mid-space between these cartilages namely medial collateral ligament (for the inner side ), lateral collateral ligament ( for the outer side ). The other two are the anterior and posterior ligaments which help in stabilizing the translation forces.

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